Analysis of Ground Water Fluoride Content and its Association with Prevalence of Fluorosis in Zarand/Kerman: (Using GIS)

Tayebeh Malek Mohammadi, Reza Derakhshani, Morteza Tavallaie, Maryam Raoof, Naimeh Hasheminejad, Ali Akbar Haghdoost



Statement of Problem: The concentration of fluoride in water is usually higher in areas around the coal mines. Zarand region in the south-east of Iran is known for its coal mines. Some studies have shown the high prevalence of fluorosis and some studies reported high levels of fluoride in the region.

Objectives: This study aimed to use Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess the relationship between water fluoride content and the prevalence of fluorosis and its spatial distribution in Zarand region.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to recruit 550 people aged 7-40 years in Zarand. Dental examination for fluorosis was conducted based on the Dean’s Index. The level of fluoride in the water was determined in samples of water taken from 35 areas. Information on fluorosis and fluoride content was mapped on GIS.

Results: Most participants lived in rural areas (87.25%) and had an educational status of high school level (66%). About 23% of the examined people had normal teeth, 10% had severe and 67% had mild to moderate fluorosis. Distribution of severe fluorosis was higher in areas with higher levels of fluoride in the water according to GIS map.

Conclusions: GIS map clearly showed a positive relationship between the prevalence and severity of fluorosis with the level of fluoride in water in Zarand. The GIS analysis may be useful in the analysis of other oral conditions.

Key words: Fluoride, Fluorosis, Geographic Information System, Zarand/Kerman/Iran



Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

pISSN :2383-3971              eISSN :2383-398X