Recent Advances and Future Perspectives for Reinforcement of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Denture Base Materials: A Literature Review

Sahar Abdulrazzaq Naji, Tahereh sadat Jafarzadeh Kashi, Marjan Behroozibakhsh, Hamidreza Hajizamani, Sareh Habibzadeh


Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is the most common material used to fabricate complete and partial dentures. Despite its desirable properties, it cannot fulfill all mechanical requirements of prosthesis. Flexural fatigue due to repeated masticatory and high-impact forces caused by dropping are the main causes of denture fractures. In the past, different reinforcing agents such as rubbers, macro fibers, and fillers have been employed to improve the mechanical properties of denture base resins. Development of Nano dentistry has introduced new approaches for reinforcement of dental materials. Interest in nanostructure materials is driven by their high surface area to volume ratio, which enhances interfacial interaction and specific new biological, physical, and chemical properties. Researchers to reinforce PMMA resins have used Nanoparticles (Nps) which were comprised of silver, Titania (TiO2), zirconia (ZrO2), alumina, and ceramic. Although different reports describe the use of nanofiber and nanotubes in dental composites, few studies have evaluated the reinforcement potential of nanofiber and nanotubes in PMMA denture base resins. The current article aims to review the different attempts to enhance the mechanical properties of denture base materials. We also focus on recent advances and potential future developments for reinforcement of the PMMA acrylic resins.

Full Text:



Peyton FA. History of resins in dentistry. Dent Clin North Am. 1975;19:211-22.

Wiskott HW, Nicholls JI, Belser UC. Stress fatigue: basic principles and prosthodontic implications. Int J Prosthodont. 1995;8:105-16.

Jagger DC, Harrison A, Jandt KD. The reinforcement of dentures. J Oral Rehabil. 1999;26:185-94.

Darbar UR, Huggett R, Harrison A. Denture fracture--a survey. Br Dent J. 1994;176:342-5.

Zappini G, Kammann A, Wachter W. Comparison of fracture tests of denture base materials. J Prosthet Dent. 2003;90:578-85.

Rodford R. The development of high impact strength denture-base materials. J Dent. 1986;14:214-7.

Rodford RA. Further development and evaluation of high impact strength denture base materials. J Dent. 1990;18:151-7.

Broutman LJ, Panizza G. Micromechanics studies of rubber-reinforced glassy polymers. Int J Polym Mater. 1971;1:95-109.

Alhareb AO, Akil HM, Ahmad ZA. Mechanical Properties of PMMA Denture Base Reinforced by Nitrile Rubber Particles with Al2O3/YSZ Fillers. Procedia Manufacturing. 2015;2:301-6.

Alhareb AO, Akil HM, Ahmad ZA. Impact strength, fracture toughness and hardness improvement of PMMA denture base through addition of nitrile rubber/ceramic fillers. Saudi J Dent Res. 2016;8:26-34.

Vallittu PK. A review of fiber-reinforced denture base resins. J Prosthodont. 1996;5:270-6.

Kohli S, Bhatia S. Polyamides in dentistry. International Journal of Scientific Study. 2013;1:20-5.

Larson WR, Dixon DL, Aquilino SA, et al. The effect of carbon graphite fiber reinforcentent on the strength of provisional crown and fixed partial denture resins. J Prosthet Dent. 1991;66:816-20.

Zheng J, Xiao Yu, Gong T, et al. Fabrication and characterization of a novel carbon fiber-reinforced calcium phosphate silicate bone cement with potential osteo-inductivity. Biomed Mater. 2015;11:015003.

Alla RK, Sajjan S, Alluri VR, et al. Influence of fiber reinforcement on the properties of denture base resins. 2013;4:91-97.

Özen J, Sipahi C, ÇAĞLAR A, et al. In vitro cytotoxicity of glass and carbon fiber-reinforced heat-polymerized acrylic resin denture base material. Tur J Med Sci. 2006;36:121-6.

Henderson JD Jr, Mullarky RH, Ryan DE. Tissue biocompatibility of kevlar aramid fibers and polymethylmethacrylate, composites in rabbits. J Biomed Mater Res. 1987;21:59-64.

Grave AM, Chandler HD, Wolfaardt JF. Denture base acrylic reinforced with high modulus fibre. Dent Mater. 1985;1:185-7.

He X, Qu Y, Peng J, et al. A novel botryoidal aramid fiber reinforcement of a PMMA resin for a restorative biomaterial. Biomater Sci. 2017;5:808-16.

Kumar G, Nigam A, Naeem A, et al. Reinforcing Heat-cured Poly-methyl-methacrylate Resins using Fibers of Glass, Polyaramid, and Nylon: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016;17:948-52.

Jaikumar RA, Karthigeyan S, Ali SA, et al. Comparison of flexural strength in three types of denture base resins: An in vitro study. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2015;7:S461-4.

Hamouda IM, Beyari MM. Addition of glass fibers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the acrylic resin denture base material: comparative study with the conventional and high impact types. Oral Health Dent Manag. 2014;13:107-12.

Unalan F, Dikbas I, Gurbuz O. Transverse Strength of Poly-Methylmethacrylate Reinforced with Different Forms and Concentrations of E-Glass Fibres. OHDMBSC. 2010;9:144-147.

Vallittu PK, Lassila VP, Lappalainen R. Acrylic resin-fiber composite--Part I: The effect of fiber concentration on fracture resistance. J Prosthet Dent. 1994;71:607-12.

Yu SH, Cho HW, Oh S, et al. Effects of glass fiber mesh with different fiber content and structures on the compressive properties of complete dentures. J Prosthet Dent. 2015;113:636-44.

Nagakura M, Tanimoto Y, Nishiyama N. Fabrication and physical properties of glass-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for non-metal-clasp dentures. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2017;105:2254-2260.

Galan D, Lynch E. The effect of reinforcing fibres in denture acrylics. J Ir Dent Assoc. 1989;35:109-13.

Goguta L, Marsavina L, Bratu D, et al. Impact strength of acrylic heat curing denture base resin reinforced with E-glass fibers. TMJ. 2006;56:88-91.

Vallittu P. Curing of a silane coupling agent and its effect on the transverse strength of autopolymerizing polymethylmethacrylate—glass fibre composite. J Oral Rehabil. 1997;24:124-30.

Prasad AH, Kalavathy, Mohammed HS. Effect of Glass Fiber And Silane Treated Glass Fiber Reinforcement On Impact Strength Of Maxillary Complete Denture. Annals and Essences of Dentistry. 2011;3:7-12.

Sehajpal SB, Sood VK. Effect of metal fillers on some physical properties of acrylic resin. J Prosthet Dent. 1989;61:746-51.

Yadav P, Mittal R, Sood VK, et al. Effect of incorporation of silane-treated silver and aluminum microparticles on strength and thermal conductivity of PMMA. J Prosthodont. 2012;21:546-51.

Zhang X, Zhang X, Zhu B, et al. Mechanical and thermal properties of denture PMMA reinforced with silanized aluminum borate whiskers. Dent Mater J. 2012;31:903-8.

Mc Nally L, O'sullivan DJ, Jagger DC. An in vitro investigation of the effect of the addition of untreated and surface treated silica on the transverse and impact strength of poly (methyl methacrylate) acrylic resin. Biomed Mater Eng. 2006;16:93-100.

Gad MM, Fouda SM, Al-Harbi FA, et al. PMMA denture base material enhancement: a review of fiber, filler, and nanofiller addition. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:3801-12.

Pan Y, Liu F, Xu D, et al. Novel acrylic resin denture base with enhanced mechanical properties by the incorporation of PMMA-modified hydroxyapatite. Progress in Natural Science: Materials International. 2013;23:89-93.

Tham WL, Chow WS, Mohd Ishak ZA. Simulated body fluid and water absorption effects on poly (methyl methacrylate)/hydroxyapatite denture base composites. Express Polym Lett. 2010;4:517-28.

Mansour MM, Wagner WC, Chu TM. Effect of mica reinforcement on the flexural strength and microhardness of polymethyl methacrylate denture resin. J Prosthodont. 2013;22:179-83.

Shepherd PD, Golemba FJ, Maine FW. Mica as a Reinforcement for Plastics. ACS Publications.1974;134:41-51.

Unalan F, Gurbuz O, Nihan N, et al. Effect of mica as filler on wear of denture teeth polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) resin. Balkan Journal of Stomatology. 2007;11:133-137.

Grumezescu AM. Nanobiomaterials in Dentistry Applications of Nanobiomaterials: Elsevier Inc. 2016;11:498.

Luisa F, Duncan S. European Commission.NANOTECHNOLOGIES: Principles, Applications, Implications and Hands-on Activities. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities; 2012. 406 p.

Hoshika S, Nagano F, Tanaka T, et al. Expansion of nanotechnology for dentistry: effect of colloidal platinum nanoparticles on dentin adhesion mediated by 4-META/MMA-TBB. J Adhes Dent. 2011;13:411-6.

Sivakumar I, Arunachalam KS, Sajjan S, et al. Incorporation of antimicrobial macromolecules in acrylic denture base resins: a research composition and update. J Prosthodont. 2014;23:284-90.

Ghaffari T, Hamedi-Rad F. Effect of Silver Nano-particles on Tensile Strength of Acrylic Resins. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2015;9:40-3.

Sodagar A, Kassaee MZ, Akhavan A, et al. Effect of silver nano particles on flexural strength of acrylic resins. J Prosthodont Res. 2012;56:120-4.

Chatterjee A. Properties improvement of PMMA using nano TiO2. J Appl Polym Sci. 2010;118:2890–7.

Elsaka SE, Hamouda IM, Swain MV. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles addition to a conventional glass-ionomer restorative: influence on physical and antibacterial properties. J Dent. 2011;39:589-98.

Matsubayashi Y, Sugawara T, Kuroda S, et al. Studies on the bactericidal effects of titanium dioxide for the utilization of medical material. IEICE Technical Report. 2005;12:21-24.

Sodagar A, Bahador A, Khalil S, et al. The effect of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles on flexural strength of poly (methyl methacrylate) acrylic resins. J Prosthodont Res. 2013;57:15-9.

Harini P, Mohamed K, Padmanabhan TV. Effect of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the flexural strength of polymethylmethacrylate: an in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res. 2014;25:459-63.

Alwan SA, Alameer SS. The effect of the addition of silanized Nano titania fillers on some physical and mechanical properties of heat cured acrylic denture base materials. J BCD. 2015;27:86-91.

Gad M, ArRejaie AS, Abdel-Halim MS, et al. The Reinforcement Effect of Nano-Zirconia on the Transverse Strength of Repaired Acrylic Denture Base. Int J Dent. 2016;2016:7094056.

Asopa V, Suresh S, Khandelwal M, et al. A comparative evaluation of properties of zirconia reinforced high impact acrylic resin with that of high impact acrylic resin. Saudi J Dent Res. 2015;6:146-51.

Ahmed MA, Ebrahim MI. Effect of zirconium oxide nano-fillers addition on the flexural strength, fracture toughness, and hardness of heat-polymerized acrylic resin. WJNScE. 2014;4:50-57.

Gad MM, Rahoma A, Al-Thobity AM, et al. Influence of incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the repair strength of polymethyl methacrylate denture bases. Int J Nanomedicine. 2016;11:5633-43.

Uyar T, Cokeliler D. The Improvement of Dental Composite Properties with Electromagnetically Aligned Nanofiber. MRS Proceedings. 2014; 1685:u06-12.

Uyar T, Cokeliler D, Dogan M, et al. Electrospun nanofiber reinforcement of dental composites with electromagnetic alignment approach. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2016;62:762-70.

Li X, Liu W, Sun L, et al. Resin composites reinforced by nanoscaled fibers or tubes for dental regeneration. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:542958.

Chen L, Yu Q, Wang Y, et al. BisGMA/TEGDMA dental composite containing high aspect-ratio hydroxyapatite nanofibers. Dent Mater. 2011;27:1187-95.

Boyd SA, Su B, Sandy JR, et al. Cellulose nanofibre mesh for use in dental materials. Coatings. 2012;2:120-37.

Chen L, Xu C, Wang Y, et al. BisGMA/TEGDMA dental nanocomposites containing glyoxylic acid-modified high-aspect ratio hydroxyapatite nanofibers with enhanced dispersion. Biomed Mater. 2012;7:045014.

Gao Y, Sagi S, Zhang L, et al. Electrospun nano‐scaled glass fiber reinforcement of bis‐GMA/TEGDMA dental composites. J Appl Polym Sci. 2008;110:2063-70.

Arcis RW, Lopez-Macipe A, Toledano M, et al. Mechanical properties of visible light-cured resins reinforced with hydroxyapatite for dental restoration. Dent Mater. 2002;18:49-57.

Cucuruz AT, Andronescu E, Ficai A, et al. Synthesis and characterization of new composite materials based on poly(methacrylic acid) and hydroxyapatite with applications in dentistry. Int J Pharm. 2016;510:516-23.

Fong H. Electrospun nylon 6 nanofiber reinforced BIS-GMA/TEGDMA dental restorative composite resins. Polymer. 2004;45:2427-32.

Cheng L, Zhou X, Zhong H, et al. NaF-loaded core–shell PAN–PMMA nanofibers as reinforcements for Bis-GMA/TEGDMA restorative resins. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2013;34:262-9.

Vidotti HA, Manso AP, Leung V, et al. Flexural properties of experimental nanofiber reinforced composite are affected by resin composition and nanofiber/resin ratio. Dent Mater. 2015;31:1132-41.

Bavykin DV, Walsh FC. Titanate and titania nanotubes: synthesis, properties and applications. Royal Society of Chemistry. 2010;207890.

Khaled SM, Charpentier PA, Rizkalla AS. Synthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate)-based experimental bone cements reinforced with TiO2-SrO nanotubes. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:3178-86.

Cadek M, Coleman JN, Barron V, et al. Morphological and mechanical properties of carbon-nanotube-reinforced semicrystalline and amorphous polymer composites. Appl Phys Lett. 2002;81:5123-5.

Wang R, Tao J, Yu B, et al. Characterization of multiwalled carbon nanotube-polymethyl methacrylate composite resins as denture base materials. J Prosthet Dent. 2014;111:318-26.

Harris PJ. Carbon nanotubes and related structures: new materials for the twenty-first century. AAPT. 2002;3:463-464.

Li X, Fan Y, Watari F. Current investigations into carbon nanotubes for biomedical application. Biomed Mater. 2010;5: 22001.

Hamouda IM. Current perspectives of nanoparticles in medical and dental biomaterials. J Biomed Res. 2012;26:143-51.

Chen J, Rao AM, Lyuksyutov S, et al. Dissolution of full-length single-walled carbon nanotubes. J Phys Chem B. 2001;105:2525-8.

Zhang F, Xia Y, Xu L, et al. Surface modification and microstructure of single-walled carbon nanotubes for dental resin-based composites. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2008;86:90-7.

Joussein E, Petit S, Churchman J, et al. Halloysite clay minerals–a review. Clay minerals. 2005;40:383-426.

Vergaro V, Abdullayev E, Lvov YM, et al. Cytocompatibility and uptake of halloysite clay nanotubes. Biomacromolecules. 2010;11:820-6.

Abdallah RM. Evaluation of polymethyl methacrylate resin mechanical properties with incorporated halloysite nanotubes. J Adv Prosthodont. 2016;8:167-71.

Yu W, Wang X, Tang Q, et al. Reinforcement of denture base PMMA with ZrO 2 nanotubes. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2014;32:192-7.

Byrne MT, McCarthy JE, Bent M, et al. Chemical functionalisation of titania nanotubes and their utilisation for the fabrication of reinforced polystyrene composites. J Mater Chem. 2007;17:2351-8.

Porras R, Bavykin DV, Zekonyte J, et al. Titanate nanotubes for reinforcement of a poly (ethylene oxide)/chitosan polymer matrix. Nanotechnology. 2016;27:195706.

Khaled S, Miron RJ, Hamilton DW, et al. Reinforcement of resin based cement with titania nanotubes. Dent Mater. 2010;26:169-78.

Dafar MO, Grol MW, Canham PB, et al. Reinforcement of flowable dental composites with titanium dioxide nanotubes. Dent Mater. 2016;32:817-26.

Abdulrazzaq Naji S, Behroozibakhsh M, Jafarzadeh Kashi TS, et al. Effects of incorporation of 2.5 and 5 wt% TiO2 nanotubes on fracture toughness, flexural strength, and microhardness of denture base poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). J Adv Prosthodont. Forthcoming.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

pISSN :2383-3971              eISSN :2383-398X