Assessment of the Mandibular Canal and Mental Foramen Variations Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Janan Ghapanchi, Maryam Zangoei Boushehri, Abdolaziz Haghnegahdar, Shiva Nayyrain, Hajar Shakibasefat, Maryam Paknahad


Statement of the Problem: It is crucial to have sufficient knowledge about
inferior alveolar canal variations in mandibular surgeries. Anatomic imaging of
the mandibular canal prior to surgical procedures such as implant placement and
sagittal split osteotomy is essential for achieving the best results and confronting
minimal complications.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine normal variations of the
mandibular canal and mental foramen in a selected Iranian population.
Material and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 334 cone
beam computed tomography (CBCT) of patients , comprising of 119 males
and 215 females , aged between 15-75 years (mean age, 45±7.5 years). The
prevalence of anterior loop, the level of mandibular canal cortication, and
mental foramen variations were recorded on CBCT images.
Results: Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in the prevalence
of the anterior loop and mental foramen variations in both sides regarding the
age and gender (p>0.05). Anterior loop was detected in 90.5% of cases, while
accessory mandibular canals were observed in 4.6% of the patients. More than
one mental foramen was detected in 5 (4.2%) men and 17 (7.9%) women in the
right side and in the left side; this was detected in 11(9.2%) men and 10 (4.7%)
women. No significant differences were found in the number of mental foramen
regarding to gender and age in both sides (p>0.05). A non-significant relationship
was observed between the age groups, the gender, and the prevalence of
accessory canals. Moreover, statistical analysis did not demonstrate a significant
relationship between gender and mandibular canal cortication in both sides.
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that there were numerous anatomical
variations of the mandibular canal, mental foramen and, anterior loop.

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pISSN :2383-3971              eISSN :2383-398X