Novel User-friendly Device for Human Bite Force Measurement

Mohammad Saleh Khaghaninejad, Ali Peyravi, Amir Khosravifard, Elham Peyravi, Hamid Reza Eftekharian, Mahmoud Reza Peyravi


Statement of Problem: Bite force is generated due to the consonance between different parts of the masticatory system. In dentistry, measurement of the bite force is quite common through several methods and devices.
Objective: The aim was to present a novel bite force-measuring device that could help reducing the costs.
Materials and Methods:This study presented the design, fabrication, and calibration method of a novel low-cost bite force-measuring device based on a force-sensitive resistor and application of strain gages. The FSR 402 was the selected sensor, which was suitable in size for placement in mouth, sterilizable for reuse, and contained biocompatible material.It could measure a large bite force of up to 90kgwith high repeatability.The device had a liquid crystal display (LCD) for immediate visualization of the results and a system for quick calibration of the device in office. To assess the accuracy of the device, some forces were applied to the sensor in nine values from11 to 80kg. The mean of measured force, absolute error, and error percentage were measured and recorded.
Results: The mean relative error was almost 2% within the range of 11-80kg. The lowest error percentage was 0.46% at the load of 52kg and the highest error percentage was 3.97% at the load of 28 kg.Error percentage was 2.51% in the lowest range (11kg) and 2.65% in the highest range (80kg).The relative error in different ranges did not follow a particular trend.
Conclusions:The  bite force-measuring device is an economical and user-friendly appliance that can be simply used for routine practice in the office. The device shows good linearity and repeatability. It also has a calibration apparatus that can help maintaining the device accuracy.

Full Text:



Umesh S, Padma S, Asokan S, et al. Fiber Bragg grating based bite force measurement. JBiomech. 2016;49:2877-2881.

Van Der Bilt A, Tekamp A, Van Der Glas H, et al. Bite force and electromyograpy during maximum unilateral and bilateral clenching. EurJOral Sci. 2008;116:217-222.

Yen CI, Mao SH, Chen CH, et al. The correlation between surface electromyography and bite force of mastication muscles in Asian young adults. Ann Plast Surg. 2015;74:168-172.

Cerna M, Ferreira R, Zaror C, et al. Validity and reliability of the T-Scan® III for measuring force under laboratory conditions. J Oral Rehab. 2015;42:544-551.

Owais AI, Shaweesh M, Abu Alhaija ES. Maximum occlusal bite force for children in different dentition stages.EurJOrthod. 2013;35:427-433.

Sun KT, Chen SC, Li YF, et al. Bite-force difference among obese adolescents in central Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc. 2016;115:404-410.

Calderon PS, Kogawa EM, Lauris JR, et al. The influence of gender and bruxism on the human maximum bite force. J Appl Oral Sci. 2006;14:448-453.

Fernandes CP, Glantz PO, Svensson SA, et al. A novel sensor for bite force determinations. Dent Mater. 2003;19:118-126.

Harada K, Watanabe M, Ohkura K, et al. Measure of bite force and occlusal contact area before and after bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible using a new pressure-sensitive device: a preliminary report. J Oral MaxillofacSurg. 2000;58:370-373.

Ueki K, Marukawa K, Shimada M, et al. Changes in occlusal force after mandibular ramus osteotomy with and without Le Fort I osteotomy. Int JOral MaxillofacSurg. 2007;36:301-304.

Castelo PM, Gavião MB, Pereira LJ, et al. Masticatory muscle thickness, bite force, and occlusal contacts in young children with unilateral posterior crossbite. Eur J Orthod. 2007;29:149-156.

Koc D, Dogan A, Bek B. Bite force and influential factors on bite force measurements: a literature review.Eur J Dent. 2010;4:223-232.

Shinogaya T, Bakke M, Thomsen CE, et al. Bite force and occlusal load in healthy young subjects--a methodological study. Eur JProsthodontRestor Dent. 2000;8:11-15.

Rane V, Hamde S, Agrawal A. Development of computerized masticatory force measurement system. J Med Eng Technol. 2017;41:65-71.

Testa M, Di Marco A, Pertusio R, et al. A validation study of a new instrument for low cost bite force measurement. J Electromyog Kinesiology. 2016;30:243-248.

Fastier-Wooller J, Phan HP, Dinh T, et al. Novel low-cost sensor for human bite force measurement. Sensors. 2016;16:1244.

Kerstein RB. Articulating paper mark misconceptions and computerized occlusal analysis technology. DentImplantolUpdate. 2008;19:41-46.

Baltrusaityte A, Surna A, Pileicikiene G, et al. The relationship between unilateral mandibular angle fracture and temporomandibular joint function.Stomatologija. 2014;16:87-93.

Liu CW, Chang YM, ShenYF, et al. Using the T-scan III system to analyze occlusal function in mandibular reconstruction patients: A pilot study. Biomed J. 2015;38:52-57.

Lila-KrasniqiZD, Shala KS, Pustina-Krasniqi T, et al. Differences between centric relation and maximum intercuspation as possible cause for development of temporomandibulardisorder analyzed with T-scan III. Eur JDent. 2015;9:573.

Kogawa E, Calderon P, Lauris J, et al. Evaluation of maximal bite force in temporomandibular disorders patients.J Oral Rehab. 2006;33:559-565.

Waltimo A, Könönen M. A novel bite force recorder and maximal isometric bite force values for healthy young adults. EurJournal Oral Sci. 1993;101:171-175.

Tekscan Force Sensors for Design. (accessed on 10 March 2016) Available at: [].

Diaz Lantada A, Gonzalez Bris C, Lafont Morgado P, et al. Novel system for bite-force sensing and monitoring based on magnetic near field communication. Sensors. 2012;12:11544-11558.

Bousdras VA, Cunningham JL, Ferguson-Pell M, et al. A novel approach to bite force measurements in a porcine model in vivo.Int JOral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:663-667.

Lee SM, Lee JW. Computerized occlusal analysis: correlation with occlusal indexes to assess the outcome of orthodontic treatment or the severity of malocculusion. Korean J Orthod. 2016;46:27-35.

Cerna M, Ferreira R, Zaror C, et al. In vitro evaluation of T-Scan® III through study of the sensels.CRANIO®. 2015;33:300-306.

Kerstein RB. History of the T-Scan system development from 1984 to the present day. Handbook of Research on Computerized Occlusal Analysis Technology Applications in Dental Medicine 2015; 1-35.

Kwon HK, Yoo JH, Kwon YS, et al.Comparison of bite force with dental prescale and unilateral bite force recorder in healthy subjects.J Korean AcadProsthodont. 2006;44:103-111.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

pISSN :2383-3971              eISSN :2383-398X