Efficacy of Endodontic Files with Different Metallurgical Characterization in Removing Root Canal Filling Material

Hüseyin Sinan TOPÇUOĞLU, İbrahim ŞENER, Sezer DEMİRBUĞA, Nazire Nurdan ÇAKIR, Gamze TOPÇUOĞLU


Statement of problem: Safe and efficient removal of all root filling materials
from the canal system is essential for optimal nonsurgical retreatment, because
it provides effective cleaning, shaping, and re-filling of the root canal system.
Objectives: This study compares the effectiveness of Reciproc Blue, HyFlex
CM, Reciproc, and ProTaper Universal retreatment files (PTUR) in removing
root canal filling material (RCFM).
Materials and methods: Sixty human upper central incisors were shaped with
Revo-S files up to apical size 40 and were obturated using the cold lateral
compaction technique. After two weeks, the RCFMs were removed with Reciproc
Blue, HyFlex CM, Reciproc, or PTUR (ProTaper Universal Retreatment) files.
Teeth were cleaved longitudinally, and digital images were then captured.
The amounts of RCFMs in the obtained images were analyzed using ImageJ
software, and the time required to remove the RCFM was recorded. Data were
analyzed using a one-way of variance (ANOVA) test.
Results: There was no significant difference among the files in the coronal third
(P>0.05). In contrast, in the middle and apical thirds, the amount of remaining
RCFM was significantly higher in HyFlex CM and Reciproc Blue groups than
that of PTUR and Reciproc groups (P<0.05); however, there is no significant
difference between the HyFlex CM and Reciproc Blue groups (P>0.05).
Furthermore, there is no difference between the Reciproc and PTUR files
regarding the amount of remaining RCFM (P>0.05). The Reciproc file removed
the RCFM in a shorter time than the other groups (P<0.05). However, there is
no difference among the other three groups (P>0.05).
Conclusions: None of the tested files could completely remove the RCFM.
Under the limitation of this study, the files with shape memory (Reciproc and
PTUR files) exhibited better performance than the files with reduced shape
memory (Reciproc Blue) and controlled memory (HyFlex CM) in removing
the RCFM.

Full Text:




Alves FR, Marceliano-Alves MF, Sousa JC3, et al. Removal of Root Canal Fillings in Curved Canals Using Either Reciprocating Single- or Rotary Multi-instrument Systems and a Supplementary Step with the XP-Endo Finisher. J Endod. 2016;42:1114-9.

Rodríguez G, Patel S, Durán-Sindreu F, et al. Influence of Cone-beam Computed Tomography on Endodontic Retreatment Strategies among General Dental Practitioners and Endodontists. J Endod. 2017;43:1433-7.

Rios MD, Villela AM, Cunha RS, et al. Efficacy of 2 reciprocating systems compared with a rotary retreatment system for gutta-percha removal. J Endod. 2012;40:543–6.

Zuolo AS, Mello JE Jr, Cunha RS, et al. Efficacy of reciprocating and rotary techniques for removing filling material during root canal retreatment. Int Endod J. 2013;46:947–53.

Martinho FC, Freitas LF, Nascimento GG, et al. Endodontic retreatment: clinical comparison of reciprocating systems versus rotary system in disinfecting root canals. Clin Oral Investig. 2015;19:1411–7.

Marques da Silva B, Baratto-Filho F, Leonardi DP, et al. Effectiveness of ProTaper, D-RaCe, and Mtwo retreatment files with and without supplementary instruments in the removal of root canal filling material. Int Endod J. 2012;45:927-32.

Bürklein S, Börjes L, Schäfer E. Comparison of preparation of curved root canals with Hyflex CM and Revo-S rotary nickel-titanium instruments. Int Endod J. 2014;47:470-6.

De-Deus G, Silva EJ, Vieira VT, et al. Blue Thermomechanical Treatment Optimizes Fatigue Resistance and Flexibility of the Reciproc Files. J Endod. 2017;43:462-6.

Niemi TK, Marchesan MA, Lloyd A, et al. Effect of Instrument Design and Access Outlines on the Removal of Root Canal Obturation Materials in Oval-shaped Canals. J Endod. 2016;42:1550-4.

Nevares G, de Albuquerque DS, Freire LG, et al. Efficacy of ProTaper NEXT Compared with Reciproc in Removing Obturation Material from Severely Curved Root Canals: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study. J Endod. 2016;42:803-8.

Rodrigues CT, Duarte MA, de Almeida MM, et al. Efficacy of CM-Wire, M-Wire, and Nickel-Titanium Instruments for Removing Filling Material from Curved Root Canals: A Micro-Computed Tomography Study. J Endod. 2016;42:1651-5.

Yürüker S, Görduysus M, Küçükkaya S, et al. Efficacy of Combined Use of Different Nickel-Titanium Files on Removing Root Canal Filling Materials. J Endod. 2016;42:487-92.

Colaco AS, Pai VA. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficiency of Manual and Rotary Gutta-percha Removal Techniques. J Endod. 2015;41:1871-4.

Rossi-Fedele G, Ahmed HM. Assessment of Root Canal Filling Removal Effectiveness Using Micro-computed Tomography: A Systematic Review. J Endod. 2017;43:520-6.

Bernardes RA, Duarte MA, Vivan RR, et al. Comparison of three retreatment techniques with ultrasonic activation in flattened canals using micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy. Int Endod J. 2015 Aug 17. doi: 10.1111/iej.12522. [Epub ahead of print].

Özyürek T, Demiryürek EÖ. Efficacy of Different Nickel-Titanium Instruments in Removing Gutta-percha during Root Canal Retreatment. J Endod. 2016;42:646-9.

de Carvalho Maciel AC, Zaccaro Scelza MF. Efficacy of automated versus hand instrumentation during root canal retreatment: an ex vivo study. Int Endod J. 2006;39:779-84.

Gergi R, Sabbagh C. Effectiveness of two nickel-titanium rotary instruments and a hand file for removing gutta-percha in severely curved root canals during retreatment: an ex vivo study. Int Endod J. 2007;40:532-7.

Monguilhott Crozeta B, Damião de Sousa-Neto M, Bianchi Leoni G1, et al. A micro-computed tomography assessment of the efficacy of rotary and reciprocating techniques for filling material removal in root canal retreatment. Clin Oral Investig. 2016;20:2235-40.

de Siqueira Zuolo A, Zuolo ML, da Silveira Bueno CE, et al. Evaluation of the Efficacy of TRUShape and Reciproc File Systems in the Removal of Root Filling Material: An Ex Vivo Micro-Computed Tomographic Study. J Endod 2016;42:315-9.

Capar ID, Arslan H, Ertas H, et al. Effectiveness of ProTaper Universal retreatment instruments used with rotary or reciprocating adaptive motion in the removal of root canal filling material. Int Endod J. 2015;48:79-83.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

pISSN :2383-3971              eISSN :2383-398X